Several problems need to be clarified in the systematic management of flight delays
[ professional classification ] passenger service [ Article ID ] 7-2010-0108
Due to the numerous departments and links involved in air transport services, a simple department or partial governance measures can not achieve the final results, and it is difficult to achieve the purpose of system governance. From the current situation of China's air transport service development and the practice of flight delay management, at this stage, in order to achieve systematic control of flight delays, it is necessary to clarify the following issues:
First, the relationship between industry operation safety and quality supervision
Operational safety is undoubtedly the top priority of civil aviation development and management. Whether in the industry management department or in the specific front-line department of enterprise services, security is always the first. However, from the core concept of safety management, its foundation is also quality management, which is the core of civil aviation safety management system. Therefore, the important task of industry management is to run quality supervision. Only by ensuring the high quality of the industry's operation can it ensure the high safety of the industry. This means that both the industry management department and the specific service enterprise need to establish a safety-based operational quality standard and supervision system. However, for the industry management department, the focus of its work is on operational quality supervision, and for specific service companies, it is the guarantee of operational quality.
From the reasons that may cause flight delays, the non-force majeure factors such as flight commercial merger, ground support problem, air traffic service problem, aircraft mechanical failure, and crew arrangement are on the surface a service quality problem, but in essence it is running. Security issue. Because any of the factors other than the commercial merger of flights may lead to fatal security incidents. Even a commercial merger of flights may affect the normal operational order and ultimately affect the security of the system. Therefore, the operation quality supervision should be extended to the air carrier qualification certification and audit, the tracking and warning of airline operating resources, the qualification certification and audit of ground service enterprises, and the assessment and review of air traffic service capabilities. Quality supervision to ensure the implementation and effective implementation of operational safety policies and measures. Especially regarding the matching problem between enterprise resources and development speed, it is simply a question of operational quality, but the essence is operational safety, and it is necessary to increase the intensity of its supervision and management.
Second, the issue of air traffic service mechanism reform
Flight delays are largely related to air traffic services. China's current air traffic services are provided by the Air Traffic Management Bureau of the Civil Aviation Administration. Although in recent years China has also carried out a lot of reforms in the air traffic service mechanism, compared with the rapidly developing industry situation, there are still certain gap. Not to mention that some of the more than 160 airports in the country have not been handed over to the Air Traffic Control Authority to achieve the integration of service and management. It is only important to talk about the positioning of the Air Traffic Control Bureau as an important part of the air transport service system. The component, whether it is a business unit, an administrative unit, or a public institution, is still in dispute. As for whether it is possible to establish a service incentive mechanism that matches the development speed of the industry within it, it is far from the marketization mechanism, which greatly affects the utilization efficiency of air traffic service resources and the actual service efficiency.
From the perspective of the current world air traffic service mechanism, commercialization has obvious advantages, such as lower air transportation service costs, corresponding reduction in incident rate caused by air traffic services, and more scientific and objective capacity assessment and flow management. Moreover, more importantly, through the commercialization of air traffic services, the market-customer relationship between the demand and supply of air traffic services can be directly constructed, so that the relationship between the air traffic service department and various users can be effectively coordinated. It is conducive to ensuring the objectivity and scientificity of air transportation operation safety supervision and quality management information, especially the confirmation of non-subjective factors in the factors affecting flight delays.
Third, the relationship between airlines and airports
The core contradiction in flight delays is not the flight delay itself, but the service problem after the delay. From the current industry service practice, the service when the flight is delayed is not in place, and more is caused by the unclear relationship between the airline and the airport. To clarify the relationship between the two, the key is to clarify the connotation of the concept of airport: (1) the node and place (or region) of the air transport service; (2) the management agency of the previous connotation (airport) The management agency); (3) is the agent of the ground service.
For the first connotation (location or area), in the Airport Management Regulations officially implemented on July 1, 2009, it provides Legal recognition and guarantee for its positioning as a public infrastructure. Whether an airline can have the right to use or operate the â€œairportâ€ may be revisited, especially for feeder airports where the market is obviously underdeveloped, if it can be hosted by a local government or a government department with an airport ownership at a certain level. Or the transfer of other management rights, which is operated by the airlines and given certain market protection in terms of policies. It may become the â€œbest of both worldsâ€ to solve the problem of airport development and improve the quality of operations. When there are service problems such as flight delays. It is impossible to produce the phenomenon of so-called responsibility shirking.
For the second connotation, the airport management agency is the focus of the current debate on the reform of the airport management model. In some airports with better market development and less operational pressure, airport management agencies should construct a fair and competitive air transport service environment. Therefore, the airport management authority of this connotation should withdraw from the related business of direct operation, especially the air transportation ground agency business, strengthen the security and service quality supervision functions, and vigorously promote the transfer means such as franchise or franchise rights, thereby effectively reducing similar The frequency of disputes and liability between airlines and airport service agents in service conflicts such as flight delays effectively implements the best business rules and service level agreements advocated by ICAO.
As for the third connotation, the airport service agent, due to its traditional ownership of the airport or the lack of supervised management rights, has caused the "marketization" principal-agent mechanism between the airline and the airline to exist in name only. Therefore, this connotation must be based on the second connotation, based on the strict transfer of management rights and safety and quality supervision.
Fourth, the issue of airport security management mechanism reform
Delays in flights, especially in the case of large-scale flight delays, the pressure on public security management in the terminal building and even in the entire airport area has increased significantly, and it is also possible to cause unsafe incidents of air transport services. Judging from the current airport security management mechanism, the responsibility for public security management in the airport area is mostly attributed to the airport public security bureau. However, in the actual operation process, the security management in the terminal building may have a â€œvacuum of responsibilityâ€, which has caused the difficulty of the security management of the service site to a large extent, especially in abnormal services such as flight delays. When some passengers attack the isolation zone, the flight zone, the aircraft occupation, or the public service facilities or even the employees, the airport security management is accused of â€œhaving no law, no lawâ€, or â€œno lawâ€. As "the phenomenon occurs sometimes. Therefore, in this regard, the airport security management mechanism needs to be further improved.
Among them, the two key issues are: First, the attribution of airport public security management, that is, whether it belongs to industry management or professional management; second, the legal security of airport security management should actively promote local legislation and operate from the airport. The particularity of management further clarifies the responsibility and scope of public security management in the airport area, thus ensuring the timeliness and shockworthiness of on-site public security management.
V. Cultivation of Civil Aviation Consumption Culture
This is probably the most difficult problem that China is currently in during the social transition period. Judging from the current practice of civil aviation services in China, the immature consumer culture is an important factor leading to conflicts in services. Therefore, in the management of flight delays, we need to strengthen the cultivation of external consumption culture while strengthening the internal governance of the industry system.
First of all, from the perspective of market supervision and regulation propaganda of industry management departments, we should strengthen the clean-up and maintenance of laws, regulations and systems on air transport services, and even industry standards, and further increase on the basis of enriching practical research. And amend the relevant industry regulatory system. At the same time, it should also emphasize the effectiveness of the implementation and implementation of regulations, as well as strengthen the laws and regulations that have a greater impact on consumer behavior, habits and the economy, or have a wide-ranging influence, even when the industry standards are produced or revised. More importantly, this kind of propaganda should also consider establishing a mechanism for relevant spokespersons in the control and influence of various media, and timely and proactively communicate and explain with the news media in order to achieve consumer awareness. With the purpose of education.
Secondly, from the perspective of product design and promotion of service companies, we should accurately distinguish between the market and customer groups, segment products and services, accurately grasp the product or service promotion channels, and achieve â€œtargetedâ€ rather than overwhelming â€œprestigeâ€ and â€œoverwhelmingâ€. Luxury" product or service promotion. After all, today's air transport services have evolved from the era of â€œpower consumptionâ€ to the era of â€œmass consumptionâ€ and become a universal service product. Therefore, from the perspective of enterprise services, the most important is the differentiation of customer service commitments and the transparency of service standards.
Finally, an open culture should be established throughout the industry system, actively integrating into society and gradually eliminating the â€œmysteryâ€ of the industry. In particular, the positioning and understanding of special human resources in the industry, such as pilots and crew members, should make the society recognize their "triviality" and even the "hard side".
Of course, the systematic nature of flight delay management determines the complexity of its governance, and it can be solved not only by clarifying the above problems. However, from the practice and reality of the development of civil aviation in China, these problems are the key issues. They are able to solve the problem of sharp contradiction in abnormal services such as flight delays to a large extent, and we continue to improve the operation of the industry. The basis of safety level and service quality.
Lei Kun International Legal Services (Hainan) Co., Ltd. , https://www.lk-legal.cn