What does the rapid development of high-speed railway mean for civil aviation airports?
[ professional classification ] airport operation [ Article ID ] 37-2010-0133
During this period of time, there was a controversy over the high-speed rail and air industry confrontation, which made all the aviation industry talk about it in the industry. But there is a very obvious feature: this controversy is mainly concentrated in the airline industry. For example, in the near future, the heads of the three major airlines have expressed their concerns about the impact from the high-speed rail. Liu Shaoyong, chairman of China Eastern Airlines, also offered suggestions through the opportunity of the "two sessions" of the country. He hoped that the state could pay attention to the situation of high-speed rail and aviation industry competing for the market, and introduced relevant policies to support the development of the civil aviation industry. He said that due to insufficient airspace resources, underdeveloped regional aviation, and imperfect infrastructure, China's civil aviation industry is weak in its international competitiveness and has seriously failed to meet China's economic and social development needs. The four vertical and four horizontal high-speed passenger lines that will be completed in 2012 cover almost the most developed and densely populated areas in China. More than 60% of the domestic civil aviation market will be affected, which will directly and lastly develop the development of China's airlines. pressure.
Kong Dong, chairman of Air China, also pointed out that the high-speed rail network planning will definitely change the existing pattern of China's comprehensive transportation system, and the civil aviation industry will inevitably be challenged by the "very vital" high-speed rail. Si Xianmin, chairman of China Southern Airlines, proposed at the end of last year that "the impact of the rapid development of China's high-speed railways on the aviation industry is more precise, significant and long-lasting, compared with the unpredictable macroeconomic situation. Rise is a problem that cannot be ignored."
In response to the high-speed rail and other difficulties currently encountered by the civil aviation industry, Liu Shaoyong suggested that the state should formulate the "Opinions on Accelerating the Development of the Civil Aviation Industry" as soon as possible, and establish the strategic position and strategic planning of civil aviation at the national level; at the same time, from the airspace system, capital structure, industrial layout and Accelerate civil aviation reform in the service process. He specifically proposed that the country should increase the development of airspace resources, speed up the construction of "parallel routes" in Beijing-Guangzhou, Beijing-Shanghai and Shanghai-Guangzhou, establish free flight areas, and reduce flight restricted areas. In Liu Shaoyong's view, only when the state increases policy support, the air transport industry can continuously improve its competitiveness to resist competition from other modes of transportation such as high-speed rail.
According to China's medium and long-term railway network plan, by 2020, the operating mileage will exceed 120,000 kilometers, of which the high-speed railway with a speed of more than 200 kilometers per hour will exceed 18,000 kilometers. The high-speed locomotives that are currently being tested in China at a speed of 500 kilometers per hour are already close to the speed of some regional flights.
What this article wants to explain is whether this competition has any impact on the airport? If so, what kind of measures should the airport take to deal with it?
One glory and one loss
The airport does not live in a vacuum, and the airport competes with other airports and different modes of transportation for passengers. As a profit-oriented company, the airport is trying to expand its strength and scale. Domestic research reports indicate that the airport can achieve the goal of maintaining profitability only when it reaches a certain annual passenger throughput. In fact, every airport wants to be a hub, which means peace of mind can ensure a bright future. But that is not the case. Only a handful of airports can gradually become a hub airport in fact with their unique geographical location and local economic development. Everything else needs to go through hard work and struggle.
Remember that the airport only represents that it is part of the entire civil aviation industry, not all. In particular, hub airports should not be too self-sufficient, but should change their mindset. As an integrated system, the hub airport contains different stakeholders in the entire national economy â€“ and needs their support. The hub airport represents a transportation system, not just a hub. With the deepening of the deregulation wave in various countries, airlines have more autonomy in choosing routes and prices. This also requires the airport to establish its true appeal. For example, Mirabel Airport, the former gateway airport in Montreal, Canada, has not fallen into the sky under the wave of openness in the sky, and eventually fell into an amusement park!
When the leading companies in the three major industries, Air China, China Southern Airlines and China Eastern Airlines, felt the "threat" from the high-speed rail, other airlines were even less able to fight back. Since the opening of the Wuhan-Guangzhou high-speed railway at the end of last year, some of the airlines that previously operated the line have withdrawn, and the news of the remaining few airline tickets selling radish prices is endless. At this moment, the transformation of the airport concept is crucial.
It is very important that the airport should pay close attention to the thinking of the base airlines. The operation of the base airlines will be the biggest determinant of the success of the airport. The two are actually closely related and shared. If the base airlines are not performing well, then the airport will also catch a cold. Airports that are well-managed and well-managed are ideas that truly understand their core airlines. For example, Singapore-based Tiger Airlines, the airport has built a dedicated terminal for it. In just a few years, the company has become one of the top ten carriers of Singapore Changi Airport in terms of passenger volume!
We should see that the airport should maintain close and mutually beneficial relations with tourism agencies, passengers, shippers, business groups, agencies, airlines, etc.
The establishment of an airport â€“ a mutually beneficial relationship between airlines should be one of the long-term strategic goals of the hub airport. In fact, the airport can be healthy and orderly, and sustainable development depends on the support of the airline industry. In fact, the airportâ€™s impression of leaving its most important customers is not good. As the core customer of the airport, it is basically an airline with a certain scale and strength. However, in order to attract more airlines to join, the airport often uses a variety of preferential means to gain favor. This actually creates an unequal competition platform for existing airlines. Of course, the more airlines that operate, the better, but compared with the current increase in flights and routes by the backbone airlines, this requires the airport to carefully measure. This is not to say that the airport marketing team can put the Nanshan knife and gun into the warehouse, just let the existing airlines feel satisfied. On the contrary, if the marketing department strengthens the marketing efforts of the existing airlines, it will often get Do more with less.
Especially in the environment where the high-speed rail is about to be put into operation on a large scale, and the entire aviation industry (rather than the airline industry) is facing fierce competition, it can only work together. The airport should actively negotiate with the airlines how to cope with the aggressive competition of the high-speed rail. How to establish their own competitive advantages and then transform them into common advantages to face and meet the challenges together. There is now a sentence that is particularly applicable in the aviation industry: altruism is self-interest. The airport industry may also need to change its mindset â€“ only altruistic â€“ airlines â€“ so that it can thrive.
Technology drives airport process transformation
Many airports in China often have a distance of 20-30 kilometers from the city center, which involves the problem of short-distance transportation. At the same time, after entering the terminal, there are often long queues, including check-in counters and security gates, which sometimes take longer than short-haul flights. As a result, many passengers have chosen high-speed rail transportation.
In response to this situation, the airport industry should continue to introduce new technologies to shorten the time passengers stay in the terminal.
In terms of new technologies: self-service various services have been launched at some airports, and now we need to further promote the problem, try to shorten the passenger stay time through various self-services. At the same time, the airport should continue to move forward. For example, some airports in Northern Europe and the Nordic Airlines have begun to test RFID (radio frequency) technology. When the passenger checks in, he receives an RFID tag that is scanned and identified to confirm a particular passenger's information. If the passenger carries the mobile phone with him, the phone number will also be recorded. The antenna records where a particular passenger is located, and when they are walking inside the terminal, the RFID tag sends a signal to the airport. Therefore, the staff can always know the movement of the passengers, and take measures in advance if there is a possibility of a miss.
The Airport IT Trends Survey, jointly organized by Airline Business magazine in conjunction with the International Airports Association ACI and SITA in 2009, shows that within three years, approximately one-third of airports plan to use bar code boarding passes for security checks and boarding. The program changes to provide an entertainment download service in the terminal. These airports surveyed together accounted for 69% of global airport revenues and 60% of throughput. Electronically replacing traditional boarding passes and other travel documents will be the most important items in the airport IT development trend in the next three years. Although paperless travel may still be just a sharp point at the moment, many airports are planning to allow passengers to use mobile phones to implement self-service in 2012. For example, the Incheon International Airport in South Korea has not reduced IT investment during the economic crisis. Now it is planning to further increase investment in the area of â€‹â€‹passenger facilitation; it is making every effort to pay attention to self-service such as e-passport and mobile check-in procedures. In the future, if a passenger holds an e-passport and a mobile phone, they can go through the border inspection and security check and quickly board the plane, and no need to hold a boarding pass in their hands. Another example is the Trudeau Airport in Montreal, Canada: If travelers travel within Canada, they can travel 100% paperless. They can use the mobile 2D barcode to print the baggage tag or file and go directly to the security checkpoint, which is verified by the reader. Melbourne Airport is planning to launch a series of mobile information, including allowing passengers to download mobile movies for viewing on the journey and providing flight information to taxi drivers so that they can provide services based on flight times.
In fact, many airports in China can learn from some mature practices of foreign airports. For example, most of the airports in China do not currently provide: passengers can check the baggage service before getting off the bus. At present, some foreign airports have already provided this service, mainly because many passengers actually drive to the airport by themselves, and can check the baggage before parking the car in the parking lot, so that passengers can easily avoid heavy luggage. The parking lot was pulled to the terminal. In fact, this is also an effective way to shorten the waiting time of passengers. Check the baggage before parking, and check in the boarding pass directly through the self-service cabinet in the terminal, which is a time-saving method for both parties.
It is undeniable that technology is playing an increasingly important role, which can help airports improve efficiency and cut costs, while helping passengers to arrange their journeys more independently, and to do both. Technology can help the airport implement process changes. The most important purpose of these process changes is undoubtedly to help passengers board the plane as soon as possible, and to provide "convenience" and "convenience" in the terminal building process.
Multimodal transport and wolf dance
What is "multimodal transport"? If the next definition is to be made, the term should cover the following: in the entire transport chain, different modes of transport provide some services that together create a transport service product that covers the entire journey, and As far as possible, ensure smooth and smooth transfer between different modes of transport. This product includes passenger and cargo transportation.
By establishing such an idea, the airport's ultimate goal is to dance with wolves. Since I can't beat others, then I will join. This concept has long been awkward in a brutal and competitive business community. For the airport industry, the key is early planning, especially for airports that are ready to build.
At present, there are about 120 airports in the world that have established a mode of air and rail transportation, and many airports have built dedicated railway waiting rooms. It is expected that there will be many airports around the world ready to build the corresponding multimodal transport mode. In many hub airports â€“ such as Paris Charles de Gaulle, London Heathrow, Tokyo Narita and Frankfurt Airport in Germany â€“ the construction of the air and rail intermodal facilities and the development of the high-speed railway are closely related, which will undoubtedly greatly shorten the travel of passengers. time.
In 2008, the International Air Transport Organization published a research report: in the planning and development of the airport, the impact on the environment, the moment of take-off and landing, and rising costs, these airports are suffering, if the introduction of high-speed rail system, this Will greatly ease the heartache of the airport.
Multimodal transport also plays an important role in providing a â€œseamless journeyâ€ that allows passengers to reach their destination in the shortest possible time, which reduces many unnecessary processes. The long-term benefits of air and rail transport are not limited to passengers; if the airport has an efficient land network, it can double the coverage of the airport at once, while reducing the local airportâ€™s valuable time for landing and landing. Short-haul flights, releasing more moments for long-haul flights. Li Jiaxiang, director of the Civil Aviation Administration of China, said that the development of China's high-speed rail has an impact on the civil aviation industry at certain distances and road sections, mainly due to business impact. At the same time, it is necessary to see the positive changes brought about by the impact on the civil aviation industry. Director Li said: "First of all, the civil aviation industry should adjust the route structure and turn the original short-haul route into a long-haul route. Next, China's civil aviation industry will open more international routes and strengthen international business, which will bring positive to the promotion of China's aviation industry to enhance its international competitiveness. Variety."
The Hong Kong International Airport is a good example. Its fast railway system can reach Hong Kong Island all the time. The terminal station is Hong Kong's main railway station. Get off every 12 minutes. And you can reach Guangdong Province. The efficiency of this railway network allows the airport to cover approximately 52 million people in the Pearl River Delta region. One of the main functions of the airport is to link air transport to other ground transportation methods.
Another example is that Frankfurt Airport has always had the tradition of intermodal transportation. Since May 1999, the airport has had three train stations â€“ the regional train station downstairs in Terminal 1; the long-distance train station downstairs in the AIrail terminal, and the RAILAIRCARGO (air rail freight) in the southern freight station. )TRAIN STATION. As a result, the airport is a global leader in multimodal hub airports. One of the business concepts of the airport - multimodal transport is a vital component. Their philosophy is simple and clear: "We make constant efforts to link means of transport.
Here we will focus on the AIrail terminal facilities. The facility is currently comprised of three multimodal products â€“ long-distance train stations; check-inTrain and AIrail services. The completion of the 1999 Longitu Railway Station connects the entire southern and northern routes of Germany to the airport. Since December 15, 2002, the number of trains serving the airport has increased significantly, with an average of 9 trains per hour. The consignment of the train check-in is that the airport is doing its utmost to integrate the flight check-in facilities and the train station. This will greatly facilitate passengers. The main content of the AIrail service project is the cooperation between the airport and Lufthansa and Deutsche Bahn to provide "seamless travel" service products. For example, check-in procedures and customs procedures are directly carried out at the Stuttgart train station. After the passengers arrive at Frankfurt Airport by ICE train, they fly to Lufthansa flights. During the trip, the checked baggage is transported by air and rail. Since 2000, more and more passengers from remote rather than nearby cities have used trains instead of other modes of transport to arrive or leave the airport â€“ a phenomenon that is unique worldwide.
For Frankfurt Airport, the connection of the airport through the high-speed rail system is conducive to airport expansion and consolidation of the secondary market for originating passengers; the railway acts as a conveyor for international air passengers. From aviation to rail, and from the point of view of competition between airports, this is equivalent to the expansion of the airport coverage. Multimodal products can bring long-term profit, because the expansion of airport coverage will bring new customers to the airport and increase revenue. In air cargo, if multimodal transport is established, it can promote national economic development. For example, the Dubai World Central International Airport under construction is known as the world's largest airport. It is 40 km from the current Dubai International Airport, which will be connected to the current Dubai International Airport via high-speed light rail and dedicated roads. There is a bonded public railway corridor between the two airports, which will allow the goods to flow quickly. The product is the catcher of the airport to show its competitiveness. A good product is like planting a phoenix tree, which leads to the phoenix.
The impact of the high-speed rail on the airport industry, although it feels that it should not be very strong now, but with the airlines canceling short-haul flights in the future, the impact on the airport itself will certainly be very obvious, especially for small and medium-sized airports. Although the road ahead is bumpy, all parties concerned should play their own role to iron the front of the rugged road. The impact of the high-speed rail is not expected to stop at present, only those airports that have been prepared for the rain can survive the competition of the big waves, and they are proud of the rivers and lakes.
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