Looking at the 12th Five-Year Plan of Civil Aviation from the Planning and Positioning of Regional Airport System
[ professional classification ] airport operation [ Article ID ] 37-2011-0111
The "Twelfth Five-Year Plan" period is a key stage for China to achieve the strategic goal of building a civil aviation power in 2030. This five-year plan needs to continue the active airport construction ideas of "East Improvement, Central Enhancement, and Western Encryption" during the "Eleventh Five-Year Plan" period. It also needs to adapt to the overall trend of accelerating the transformation of economic development mode and adjusting the economic structure, and fully meet the needs of civil aviation growth mode to achieve transformation. From these two aspects, under the background of the completion of the planning and layout of large and medium-sized airports, the focus of airport construction during the â€œTwelfth Five-Year Planâ€ period will be transformed from large and medium-sized airport construction to new feeder airports, general airports and commuter airports, and will be expanded and expanded. The medium-sized airport is supplemented, and China's airport system will be dedicated to meeting the needs of comprehensively improving the service capabilities of trunk lines, feeder lines, passenger transport, freight transportation, international, general and western development.
I. Strengthening the planning and layout of the regional airport system to promote regional economic development
As an engine of regional economy, the airport should serve the national regional development strategy and international political and economic needs. In particular, regional hub airports should serve regional economic development and urban agglomeration development and construction that are included in the national strategic planning level. If at the macro level, the five major airport groups in the North, East China, Central South, Southwest, and Northwest China proposed in the National Civil Airport Layout Plan basically correspond to the layout of the four major economic sectors in the eastern, central, western, and northeastern regions of China. Then China's existing airport planning still lacks the planning layout of the economic level or urban agglomeration. In contrast, the Ministry of Railways has compiled intercity railways and urban railway networks in 14 regions including the Bohai Rim region, the Yangtze River Delta region and the Pearl River Delta region while planning the â€œfour vertical and four horizontalâ€ national high-speed railway network. planning.
Since 2006, in order to promote the coordinated development of the regional economy, the State Council has successively launched more than 20 national-level regional economic development plans. These regional plans are divided into large economic zone plates, economic zones (or urban agglomerations) and regions. At the level of the major economic zones, which are divided into four major sections, there are â€œNortheast Region Revitalization Planâ€ and â€œPromoting the Rise of the Central Regionâ€; in the economic zone or urban agglomeration, there are â€œYangtze River Delta Regional Planningâ€ and â€œYellow Riverâ€. Development Plan of Delta Efficient Ecological Economic Zone, Development Plan of Guanzhong-Tianshui Economic Zone, Outline of China's Tumen River Regional Cooperation Development Plan, Plan of Poyang Lake Ecological Economic Zone, and Opinions on Hainan International Tourism Island Construction. At the regional level, there are development plans such as the â€œHengqin Overall Development Planâ€ and â€œZhejiang Yiwu International Trade Comprehensive Reform Pilot Programâ€. These regional economic development plans, which are included in the national strategic level, have gradually outlined China's new regional economic map. It can be expected that the national economy will be fully developed and opened during the â€œTwelfth Five-Year Planâ€ period. The regional development plans and policy documents promulgated by the current state can be divided into four categories. According to the different purposes and functions of regional planning, the planning of airport groups and the development of major airports should be focused on each other. The economic and social characteristics are planned and laid separately:
First, it is conducive to fostering economic growth poles and improving the country's overall national strength and international competitiveness. For areas that foster economic growth, we should accelerate the development, improvement and strengthening of the hub functions of regional hub airports. This is mentioned in the â€œ12th Five-Year Planâ€ of the civil aviation, including Tianjin, Dalian, Shenyang, and East China Airport Groups in the Northern Airport Group. Shanghai Hongqiao, Xiamen, Hangzhou, Nanjing, Shenzhen, Wuhan, Zhengzhou, Changsha, Nanning, Haikou in the Central China Airport Group, Chengdu, Chongqing, Kunming in the Southwest Airport Group, Xi'an and Urumqi in the Northwest Airport Group. For regions that need to promote the enhancement of national strength and international competitiveness, we should continue to focus on building the functions of the three-country composite hub airports in Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou, and establish a strategic division of labor coordination mechanism.
Second, it is an area conducive to promoting international regional cooperation and enhancing the ability to open up to the outside world. Based on China's efforts to strengthen cooperation with member countries of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, the Southeast Asian Economic Union, and the Greater Mekong Sub-Regional Organization, it is necessary to strengthen the function of the national gateway hub airport in the border areas and foster Urumqi Airport to West Asia. The gateway function of Central Asia, Kunming Airport is facing Southeast Asia and South Asia, Qingdao Airport is facing Japan and South Korea, Harbin Taiping Airport is facing the Far East and Northeast Asia, and Nanning Wuxu Airport is facing the national portal function of ASEAN. The international aviation network will establish an all-round open international transportation system for the surrounding areas together with international highways, international railway international shipping and international pipelines. It should be pointed out that the Guangxi Beibu Gulf Economic Zone has been explicitly given the function of â€œimportant international regional economic cooperation zoneâ€. Nanning Wuxu Airport has also given the national portal function to ASEAN. For this reason, the airport is in the â€œ12th Five-Year Planâ€ of civil aviation. The positioning should be upgraded from a regional hub airport to a national gateway hub airport.
The third is an area that is conducive to solving special difficulties and improving self-development capabilities. In order to "increase the support of civil aviation in the old revolutionary areas, ethnic areas, border areas and poverty-stricken areas", the construction of regional airports and commuter airports in these areas should be strengthened, and the eastern and central regions with relatively underdeveloped economies should also be strongly supported. In the â€œ12th Five-Year Planâ€ of civil aviation, these airports include Zhalantun in the northern airport group, Suzhong, Huai'an and Rizhao in the East China Airport Group; Baise and Shennongjia in the Central South Airport Group; Northeast Henan; Southwest Airport Tengchong, Liupanshui, Wulong, etc. in the group; Yushu, Tianshui, Kanas, Fugu, etc. in the Northwest Airport Group. The â€œTwelfth Five-Year Planâ€ of civil aviation also proposes to build â€œMinsheng Airlinesâ€ and â€œHuimin Airlinesâ€ in addition to commercial transportation aviation. For this reason, it is active in pilot projects for the construction of commuter airports and general airport upgrades in Inner Mongolia and Xinjiang. In order to improve aviation search and rescue capabilities, emergency transportation capacity, and airport emergency rescue capabilities, a civil aviation emergency rescue helicopter base will be established in the northeast and western regions. Taking the â€œ12th Five-Year Planâ€ of Xinjiang Civil Aviation as an example, it is planned that all administrative counties and cities in Xinjiang will have airports, forming regional feeder airports in Urumqi, Shihezi, Yili, Aksu, Kashi, Hotan, Hami, Korla, Karamay and Tacheng. As the center, the â€œMinsheng Airâ€ airport system supported by the commuter airport around it can meet the multi-level needs of air transportation, stability and emergency.
Fourth, it is an area that is conducive to exploring advanced models of regional development and regional management. The development of these regional economies will depend on the pulling and radiation effects of local airports. For this reason, in the â€œ12th Five-Year Planâ€ of civil aviation, it is proposed to fully utilize and enhance Shijiazhuang, Taiyuan, Hohhot, Changchun, and East China Airport Groups in the northern airport group. Qingdao, Jinan, Nanchang, Hefei, Guiyang, Lhasa in the southwest airport group, Lanzhou, Yinchuan, Xining in the northwest airport group, and the backbone of Korla and Kashgar airports. While promoting the development of these provincial-level trunk airports into regional hub airports, we should also actively play the role of the regional airport system in promoting regional economic development. For example, in order to support the construction of the Hainan International Tourism Island Comprehensive Experimental Zone, Hainan's international airport system is being comprehensively established. Haikou Meilan Airport is positioned as an international hub airport in Southeast Asia, and Sanya Phoenix Airport is positioned as the gateway airport of the international tourist island. In the Qiongnan area, the regional tourism aviation hub, and the Qionghai Boao Airport under construction will be positioned as the VIP International Business Airport. In addition, during the â€œTwelfth Five-Year Planâ€ period, it will strive to start construction of the Western Airport as soon as possible.
2. Establish an airport level system with regional hub airports as the backbone
The â€œ12th Five-Year Planâ€ of civil aviation proposes: â€œThe goal of airport construction is to optimize the layout and improve the system, and basically build an airport system with reasonable layout, complete functions, clear hierarchy, high efficiency and safety. In the process of improving the airport system, we must focus on building Beijing. The portal hub airports such as Shanghai and Guangzhou are the core, the regional hubs, provincial capitals and key city airports are the backbones, the feeder airports are the nodes, the commuter airports and temporary take-off and landing points are the most basic nodes of the airport system. Hub Airport - Regional Hub Airport - Mainline Airport - Regional Airport - Commuter Airport - Six-level multi-level airport layout mode for temporary take-off and landing points. Among them, the regional hub airport is a new airport level with a link between the upper and lower levels. It can build a busy city-to-route at the hub airport level, as a basic guarantee for feeding large-scale composite or portal-type international hub passengers, and by constructing access Convenient hub radiation route network or ground transportation network connects the main airport, regional airport and general commuter airport in the region. As far as the hub airport level is concerned, by strengthening the national gateway hub airports in the border areas and the construction of regional hub airports in the inland areas, China will basically form an airport-wide layout with full external opening and internal center radiation.
Third, the strategic layout and development orientation of the airport
1. The meaning of airport positioning
In the context of regional economic development, it is necessary to increase the planning of airport groups serving the urban agglomeration level, as well as to accurately locate individual airports in the airport group. On the basis of the relative completion of the national airport main planning layout, airport positioning is particularly important. It should be a combination of comprehensive functional positioning and professional functional positioning, corresponding to the regional economy, urban functional nature and industrial structure of the airport. Characteristics and misalignment with similar competitive airports in the region.
Based on the needs of regional economic and social development, based on the comprehensive analysis of the current situation and development prospects of an airport and the competitive situation of surrounding airports, the airport positioning is based on the future functional nature, development model, development direction and objectives of the airport. A general overview and clarification of its position and role in the national or regional airport system. Airport positioning is at the heart of the preparation of airport strategic planning and airport master planning.
2. Positioning of airport functional properties
The airport's functional positioning reflects the professional characteristics of civil aviation, and its functions are diverse, including passenger transport, freight, express mail, postal service, official/business, low-cost, tourism, aviation teaching and training, domestic and international; center, portal, and diversion. The airport nature refers to the main and basic functions of the airport, such as passenger and freight transport, domestic and international, hub and trunk lines and the positioning of the general airport is the core function of airport positioning. In addition, the airport size ranking is also its core component. Specifically related to large, medium and small airport classifications and flight zone technical grade classification and so on.
3. Principles of airport positioning
The positioning system of the airport must be defined by a multi-dimensional and all-round perspective. The basic principles should reflect the eight characteristics of space, characteristics, hierarchy, stage, forward-looking, recognition, functionality and compoundity.
â€œSpatialityâ€ refers to the spatial extent of the airportâ€™s hinterland, which reflects the service range characteristics of airports in different spatial geo-referenced systems. The domestic hinterland of the airport usually determines the different locations of the airports in the national, regional, regional, and urban systems according to the size of the service, such as China, the North, the Pearl River Delta, and the West Bank of the Pearl River Delta. China's positioning as a regional hub airport is generally a provincial-level airport. Due to the overlapping of service space hinterland and the scruples across administrative jurisdictions, the space hinterland in airport positioning generally adopts a general approach that can be large or small. . Portal hub airports usually use â€œface-to-faceâ€ to define different international regions that radiate differently. For example, the border airports use different international regions such as West Asia, Central Asia, Southeast Asia, South Asia, Japan and South Korea, Far East and Northeast Asia, and ASEAN.
â€œFeaturedâ€ means that the positioning of each airport should highlight its distinctive characteristics. For example, the Kunming New Airport is positioned as â€œa national gateway hub airport for Southeast Asia, South Asia and Europe and Asiaâ€ to highlight the airport's identifiability, uniqueness and exclusivity. Another example is Nanjing Lukou Airport, based on the strategic positioning of â€œChina's large hub airport, air cargo and express mail distribution centerâ€, and further refined into â€œthe Yangtze River Delta connecting the bridges in the central and western regions; the main freight airports and freight ports in East China. The long-distance route connects the pivot point of the national express railway network, the preferred alternate airport of Shanghai Airport, and other multi-dimensional subdivisions, thus clarifying the special service space category of â€œBased on Su Shi and Radiation East Chinaâ€.
â€œStratificationâ€ refers to the inclusion of airports in different technical grade categories in terms of the functional nature of the airport, classification and classification, and definition of the hinterland space category, and thus reflects the comprehensive characteristics of the hierarchy; for example, Tianjin Binhai Airport â€œlarge-scale portal hubâ€ The positioning of the airport, China Northern Airlines Logistics Center defines its hierarchical positioning in terms of airport level, service space and transportation functions. The positioning of the â€œTourist Airport Group Center Airport and the East China Main Line Airportâ€ of Nanchang Changbei Airport highlights its position and role in specific areas.
â€œPhaseâ€ refers to the different positioning of each airport in different development periods, and its future positioning development may leap forward or decline, reflecting dynamic and continuity characteristics. To this end, airport planning and construction should adopt a step-by-step strategy to conduct airport positioning in stages. For example, Wuxi Shuofang Airport is planning to become a regional trunk airport by 2015. Open international routes connecting important core cities in East Asia and Northeast Asia, and intercontinental routes from Beijing to Europe and the United States, and basically establish a route network that matches the resources of Sunan's aviation market. By 2020, it will become an important hub airport in the region. The route network structure has been further improved. By 2030, it will become a regional hub airport with international advanced level and an important air portal connecting Jiangsu and the rest of the world, and open direct routes to Europe and the Americas.
â€œForward-lookingâ€ means that airport positioning can effectively guide the development needs of the airport in the medium or long-term or long-term perspective. Usually there is a phased gap between the operation status of the airport and the planning and positioning, but the positioning can be effectively achieved through steady development in a certain period of time. For example, the Ordos Airport, which has a strong development momentum, has recently developed into an energy center city airport serving the Ordos Basin. It has developed into an international energy center city airport in the medium and long term. Another example is the opportunity to combine the Yellow River Delta Economic Zone as a national strategy. The Shandong Provincial Civil Aviation 12th Five-Year Development Plan has officially positioned the Dongying Airport, now a regional airport, as a large airport.
â€œRecognitionâ€ means that the location of the airport has been widely recognized by the industry and abroad, and has been reviewed and approved by the civil aviation authorities. The development potential and growth trend of the airport have been verified or corroborated by the aviation market. For example, Beijing Capital Airport is positioned as an international aviation hub and an Asian gateway. This national level airport positioning has been officially approved by the Civil Aviation Administration and is authoritative. Its development potential and prospects have been verified in the international aviation market, and with Beijing. The city's goal of building a â€œworld cityâ€ is echoed.
â€œFunctionalityâ€ refers to the role segmentation of the airport in the aviation market, reflecting the different professional characteristics of civil aviation such as passenger transportation, freight transportation, express delivery, postal service, low cost, official service, regional aviation, and flight test. For example, Yinchuan Hedong Airport's â€œwestern important regional branch comprehensive hub and China's important nodes and material distribution centers for cargo transportation in the Middle East and Central Asiaâ€ interpret the functional characteristics of its inner and outer hinterland.
â€œCompositeâ€ means that the positioning of the airport should reflect the characteristics of various functions combined to reflect the personality of the commonality. For example, the three airports of Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou have both the characteristics of domestic and international composite and national gateway hub airports. Among them, Beijing Capital International Airport will focus on becoming a composite hub connecting Europe and North America and Northeast Asia; Shanghai Pudong International Airport will focus on building a hub for Asia-Pacific portals; Guangzhou Baiyun International Airport will focus on connecting Southeast Asia, South Asia and Oceania. The gateway to Africa.
4. Airport positioning of different subjects
Airport positioning includes two aspects: the external environment and connotation construction. The definition of the external environment involves the status and role of the airport in the national, regional and urban positioning and its aviation market positioning. The connotation construction mainly refers to the civil aviation industry authorities and civil aviation enterprises (airports). The positioning of the company and the airline), on the one hand, includes the common positioning of the public attributes of the airport of the civil aviation industry authorities, and on the other hand, the individual positioning of the airport's own attributes led by local governments and civil aviation enterprises. In general, airport positioning achieves a combination of comprehensive functional positioning and professional functional positioning, and achieves an organic unity of airport positioning principles, positioning subjects and functional structures (Figure 1).
Figure 1: Triple circle mode of airport positioning
Airport positioning usually requires the local government at the provincial and municipal levels and the civil aviation industry departments and civil aviation enterprises to agree with each other. However, these departments and agencies often have deviations from the same airport, and the airport positioning is inevitably biased. The typical deviation between the local government and the head of the civil aviation industry is that the airport positioning in China is generally broken and upgraded from the bottom up. Due to the prominent sense of local governments at the provincial and municipal levels, the localized airport group is often instructed. The company improved the location of the airport at the location and actively promoted the approval of the airport's positioning step by step, eventually enabling the CAAC to passively accept the positioning of the airport. In terms of comprehensive trade-offs, the airport positioning should be the key work function of the civil aviation authority. It should be the result of the top-down and local government's bottom-up interactive operation mechanism of the industry authorities.
In addition, the positioning of base airlines has a direct impact on airport positioning. The three airline operating modes based on intercontinental network, regional and low cost usually correspond to composite airports, regional airports and trunk feeder airports. . For example, Air China plans to form three hubs: Beijing Integrated Hub, Shanghai International Gateway, and Chengdu Regional Hub, reflecting the layout and positioning of the airline's composite, portal and regional hubs in the national hub airport system. In addition, airlines have a superposition effect and differentiation effect on the positioning of the airport. For example, Shanghai Pudong Airport has planned a cargo handling capacity of 5.5 million tons, attracting DHL, UPS, FedEx and TNT logistics giants to enter, in addition to China Cargo Airlines. China Cargo Airlines entered Pudong, which reflects the status of Pudong Airport's international cargo hub airport. In the Pearl River Delta, DHL, UPS and FedEx are located in Hong Kong, Shenzhen and Guangzhou airports respectively, which reflects the development orientation of the respective international cargo hub functions of the three major airports in the region.
4. Policy recommendations for the strategic layout and development orientation of the airport
1. Strengthen the construction of regional airport system with regional hub airports as the core
In the â€œTwelfth Five-Year Planâ€ of civil aviation, the construction target of â€œbuilding more than three international hub airports and more than 10 national and regional aviation hub airportsâ€ was proposed. In order to achieve this goal, on the one hand, in the context of accelerating regional economic development and the gradual formation of regional urban agglomerations, it is necessary to promote the planning and layout of provincial-level regional airport systems with regional hub airports as the core. On the other hand, it is also necessary to construct an interactive mechanism between local airlines, regional airport groups and provincial airport group companies to achieve the development goal of the transformation of provincial airports from regional airports to regional hub airports.
2. Establish an airport positioning system led by the competent department of the industry
The existing "National Civil Airport Layout Plan" belongs to the national airport construction plan. China does not have a national-level airport positioning system, nor does it systematically clarify the respective airports' positioning and meso-level airport group division cooperation mechanisms. To this end, it is proposed to compile a national, strategic and proactive "National Airport Strategic Planning Outline" on the basis of the "National Civil Airport Layout Plan" to form an airport positioning system from the top down and realize the regional airport system. Cooperation and win-win situation and division of labor.
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